IAT Journal
Animal Technology
and Welfare
Official Journal of the Institute of Animal Technology
and European Federation of Ani mal Technologists
Vol 18 No 1 April 20 19
ISSN 1742-0385
G Education, Education Education
G Intravenous Training Project
G Animal Technology Exchange Programme
G Congress 18 Posters Part 3
G Edinburgh 3Rs symposium posters
Editorial ix
Jas Barley, Chair of the Editorial Board
An introduction to the Higher Education Programme Level 6 1
Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project 3
Carmen Abela
Animal Technologist Exchange Programme: A Level 6 Higher Education project 19
Matthew Bilton
Using software to tackle the 3Rs A scientist’s perspective 39
Chris W.D. Armstrong
Give us a break! 45
Emma Filby
Impact of water hardness on Zebrafish early stage development 49
Carole Wilson, Paul Barwood, Visilia Moiche, Jenna Hakkesteeg and Karen Dunford
Comparing Zebrafish embryo production methods 53
Heather Callaway and Carole Wilson
Comparison of feeding regimes for Zebrafish (Danio rerio) 56
Paul Barwood and Carole Wilson
Using novel equipment to aid reduction and replacement of the ferret model in influenza transmission 59
Teresa Boreham
Optimising health & welfare tracking using The Sanger Mouse Database 62
Joshua Dench, Robbie McLaren-Jones, Valerie Vancollie, Emma Siragher, David Tino Lafont, Lauren Anthony,
Simon Maguire, Mark Griffiths, Hannah Wardle-Jones, Carl Shannon, James Bussell and Chris Lelliott
The use of Hyperova
to produce oocytes from aged WT mice and small groups of transgenic 65
mice for IVF rederivation
Julie Thomson, Ailsa Travers, Jacek Mendr ychowski and Emma Allan
Allele conversion using cell-permeable Cre recombinase 68
Ailsa Travers, Julie Thomson and Matt Sharp
The use of a par-vaginal impedance checker to improve rat plugging efficiency 70
Julie Thomson and William Mungall
Refining mouse re-derivation by using IVF with fresh or frozen sperm as opposed to embryos 73
Ailsa Travers, Julie Thomson and Matthew Sharp
Using subcuticular stitching in rats to replace skin closure clips as a refinement 75
Julie Thomson and William Mungall
IAT recognised in South Africa 77
Jabulane S. Magagula and Bert J. Mohr
Instructions to Authors 78
Vol 18 No 1 April 2019
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Dr Robin Lovell-Badge CBE FRS
Immediate Past President
Professor Sir Richard Gardner MA PhD FRSB FIAT (Hon) FRS
David Anderson MRCVS, Stephen Barnett BA MSc FIAT (Hon)
CBiol FRSB RAnTech, Miles Carroll PhD, Brian Cass CBE,
Gerald Clough BSc PhD EurBiol CBiol MRSB SFZSL,
Paul Flecknell MA Vet MB PhD DLAS DipLECVA MRCVS, FIAT (Hon)
Penny Hawkins PhD BSc, Wendy Jarrett MA,
Judy MacArthur-Clark CBE BVMS DLAS FRSB DVMS (h.c.), DipECLAM
Tim Morris BVetMed PhD DipACLAM DipECLAM CBiol FRSB CertLAS
MRCVS, José Orellana BVSc MSc, Clive Page OBE PhD BSc,
Jan-Bas Prins PhD MSc, Vicky Robinson CBE BSc PhD,
Gail Thompson RLATG, Robert Weichbrod PhD RLATG
Life Members
Charlie Chambers MIAT RAnTech, Roger Francis MSC FIAT RAnTech,
Pete Gerson MSc FIAT RAnTech, Cathy Godfrey FIAT RAnTech,
John Gregory BSc (Hons) FIAT CBiol FRSB RAnTech, Patrick Hayes
FIAT DipBA RAnTech, Robert Kemp FIAT (Hon) RAnTech,
Phil Ruddock MIAT RAnTech, Ted Wills HonFIAT RAnTech,
Honorary Members
Mark Gardiner MIAT RAnTech, Andy Jackson MIAT, Sarah Lane MSc
FIAT, Brian Lowe MSc FIAT RAnTech, Sue McHugh BSc FIAT,
Norman Mortell BA (Hons) MIAT RAnTech, Terry Priest MBE FIAT
RAnTech, Trevor Richards BEM MIAT, David Spillane FIAT,
Wendy Steel, Pete Willan DMS FInstLM MIAT
Members of Council
Ken Applebee OBE, Matthew Bilton, Kally Booth, Charlie Chambers,
Steven Cubitt, Simon Cumming, Haley Daniels, Glyn Fisher,
Nicky Gent, Cathy Godfrey, Alan Graham, Nathan Hill, Linda Horan,
Sam Jameson, Elaine Kirkum, Adele Kitching, Theresa Langford,
Sylvie Mehigan, Steve Owen, Alan Palmer, Allan Thornhill,
John Waters, Lynda Westall, Carole Wilson, Adrian Woodhouse
Council Officers
Chair: Ken Applebee OBE FIAT CBiol FRSB RAnTech
Vice Chair: Linda Horan BSc (Hons) MIAT RAnTech
Honorary Secretary: Linda Horan BSc (Hons) MIAT RAnTech
Honorary Treasurer: Charlie Chambers MIAT RAnTech
Assistant Treasurer: Glyn Fisher FIAT RAnTech
Chair Board of Educational Policy: Glyn Fisher FIAT RAnTech
Chair Board of Moderators: Haley Daniels MBA MSc MIAT RAnTech
Chair Registration & Accreditation Board: Ken Applebee OBE FIAT
CBiol FRSB RAnTech
ATW Editor: Jas Barley MSc FIAT RAnTech
Bulletin Editor: Carole Wilson BSc MIAT
Branch Liaison Officer: Lynda Westall BSc (Hons) FIAT DMS RAnTech
EFAT Representative: Charlie Chambers MIAT RAnTech
Website Coordinator: Allan Thornhill FIAT RAnTech
Animal Welfare Officers and LABA Representatives:
Matthew Bilton, Kally Booth, Simon Cumming, Nicky Gent,
Sylvie Mehigan, John Waters
ATW/Bulletin Editorial Board: Jas Barley (Chair), Matthew Bilton,
Nicky Gent, Patrick Hayes, Elaine Kirkum, Carole Wilson,
Lynda Westall
Board of Educational Policy: Glyn Fisher (Chair), Steven Cubitt
(Secretary), Adele Kitching
Board of Moderators: Haley Daniels (Chair), Simon Cumming,
Cathy Godfrey
Moderators: Anthony Iglesias, Theresa Langford, Jenny Parks,
Sarah Reed
Communications Group: Adrian Woodhouse (Chair), Nathan Hill,
Elaine Kirkum, Teresa Langford, Sylvie Mehigan, Allan Thornhill,
Lynda Westall
CPD Officer: Charlie Chambers
Registration and Accreditation Board: Ken Applebee (Chair),
Charlie Chambers, John Gregory, Cathy Godfrey, Gerald Clough,
Kathy Ryder (Home Office), Stuart Stevenson
Observer: Ngaire Dennison (LAVA)
Congress Committee: Alan Graham (Chair), Haley Daniels,
Linda Horan, Adele Kitching, Allan Thornhill, John Waters
Diversity Officer: Haley Daniels MBA MSc MIAT RAnTech CIPD
UK Biosciences ASG Representative/Home Office: Steve Owen,
Charlie Chambers, Alan Palmer
IAT Administrator: admin@iat.org.uk OR VIA THE IAT WEBSITE AT:
5 South Parade, Summertown, Oxford OX2 7JL
Advertisement Managers: PRC Associates Ltd
Email: mail@prcassoc.co.uk
Although every effort is made to ensure that no inaccurate or misleading data,
opinion or statement appear in the journal, the Institute of Animal Technology
wish to expound that the data and opinions appearing in the articles, poster
presentations and advertisements in ATW are the responsibility of the
contributor and advertiser concerned. Accordingly the IAT, Editor and their
agents, accept no liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such
inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, statement or advertisement being
published. Furthermore the opinions expressed in the journal do not
necessarily reflect those of the Editor or the Institute of Animal Technology.
© 2019 Institute of Animal Technology
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced
without permission from the publisher.
Cambridge: Sarah Shorne cambridgebranch@iat.org.uk
Edinburgh: Janice Young edinburghbranch@iat.org.uk
Hertfordshire & Essex: Joanna Cruden hertsessexbranch@iat.org.uk
Huntingdon, Suffolk & Norfolk: Jo Martin hssbranch@iat.org.uk
Ireland: Lisa Watson irelandbranch@iat.org.uk
London: Rebecca Towns londonbranch@iat.org.uk
Midlands: Ian Fielding midlandsbranch@iat.org.uk
North East England: Rachel Sandy and Joanne Bland northeastbranch@iat.org.uk
North West: Nicky Windows cheshirebranch@iat.org.uk
Oxford: April Shipton oxfordbranch@iat.org.uk
Surrey, Hampshire & Sussex: Francesca Whitmore shsbranch@iat.org.uk
West Middlesex: Josefine Woodley westmiddxbranch@iat.org.uk
West of Scotland: Linda Horan westscotlandbranch@iat.org.uk
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April 2019 Animal Technology and Welfare
Jas Barley
Chair of the Editorial Board
As you know we frequently have themed issues, sometimes they are planned and sometimes they just happen as is the
case with this issue. Planning for each issue starts at least three months in advance. In the case of the April issue
because of the Christmas break interrupting things and as we like to have it available at IAT Congress each year, it often
starts even earlier I started this issue in November last year. At the time there was no plan but over the weeks the
edition has developed an education theme.
For over 60 years the main raison d’etre of the IAT has been education. Although Tony Blair may have used the slogan
education, education, education, I like to think he got it from us! Our motto curando docemus through learning we care,
to my mind says it all. Animal Technology qualifications have been available almost from the start of the Institute and our
education programme is expanding to meet the demands of an increasingly technical based industry. Gone are the days
when we were just cage scrapers and the growing reliance on technology demands technologists with more complex skills.
Fortunately, the Institute has been able to meet this need and is now able to offer Higher Education (HE) qualifications.
The main reason we have the Journal of Animal Technology and Welfare is of course education. By disseminating the work
of Animal Technologists and our colleagues we can improve the welfare of the animals we care for. This is still important
for all Animal Technologists but especially those who are unable to attend meetings and courses.
I am delighted to be able to include an introduction to the Level 6 Higher Education programme by one of the leading
advocates of the programme Steven Cubitt as well as two articles based on Level 6 projects. Both these projects look
at training and expanding technicians’ skills. Carmen Abela’s project discusses an approach for training researchers and
technologists in intravenous tail vein injections, one of the more difficult procedures to master. Matt Bilton, alongside his
role as Chair of the IAT Animal Welfare Group, has looked at the development of an Animal Technologists’ Exchange
Programme. Both papers on the projects are lengthy but are well worth reading. As one of the participants of the first
Post Graduate Animal Technology courses which eventually led to my gaining my MSc, I know that the students will
remember the days spent on the course with fondness for not only do you learn about your profession but you establish
friendships that will stay with you the rest of your life. I look forward to seeing the latest students receive their degrees
at this year’s graduation.
However, it is not all good news as it appears that some major employers and, in particular, a few of the Universities, are
not financially supporting technologists on courses above Level 3. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is a
requirement both here in the UK under ASPA and in Europe via the 2010 Directive so theoretically we should be continuing
our education until at least the day we retire. Thankfully the charity Animals in Science Education Trust) (AS-ET), can help
by providing bursaries to attend both relevant courses and meetings for those working with animals in science.
More concise offerings are the last few posters from IAT Congress 2018 and some from the University of Edinburgh, 3Rs’
symposium. Congress posters include another education-based offering with the poster by Jabulane Magagula and Bert
Mohr from the University of Cape Town. This outlines how IAT qualifications are now available in South Africa.
Although the material for this issue of ATW is at the printers, the work is not over and I must now start thinking about
August’s issue, it is a bit like education there is always something new!
Our purpose is to advance knowledge and promote excellence in the care and welfare of
animals in science and to enhance the standards and status of those professionally
engaged in the care, welfare and use of animals in science.
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April 2019 Animal Technology and Welfare
An introduction to the Higher Education
Programme Level 6
The course is part of the prospectus of the College of
Laboratory Animal Science and Technology (CLAST).
CLAST is a non-profit course provider that delivers
Higher Education (HE) qualifications designed for those
working with animals in research, including Animal
Technologists, Registered Veterinary Professionals and
Senior Researchers.
The Higher Education provides Levels 4-6 IAT HE
Diplomas and CPD units in a range of subjects specific
to Laboratory Animal Science and Technology.
Qualifications are awarded by the IAT
which are designed to prepare
Animal Technologists and related professionals for the
role of senior and middle management, or specialist
roles within the animal facility.
Animal Facility Design and
Management Level 6 Project
Management Project
Level 6 HE units can be taken as stand-alone CPD
courses. On completion an IAT CPD Certificate for the
unit studied will be awarded. These certificates can be
used at any time to contribute towards a full HE
qualification; there is no requirement to repeat the unit.
Animal Facility Design and Management
This unit is designed to develop knowledge of
biomedical facility design but equips students with a
range of vital practical skills, as their careers progress
into a more senior role. The unit covers order of
magnitude budget setting, financial management and
how to manage risk accountably, introducing a range of
useful management tools. Students develop their
understanding of all aspects of briefing, specification,
design and construction. This enables the student to
understand and engage with both the project team and
to represent the institutional requirements effectively.
The unit also covers legislative aspects and develops
skills on the translation of these into the brief.
This issue of Animal Technology and Welfare contains two papers based on project carried
out as part of the Level 6 Animal Facility Design and Management Module: Project
Management. It is intended that these will be the first in a series of papers from Level 6
Students learning about stages of design and build
projects from an architect on a visit to an architectural
Because change and development are continual in the
industry, the central focus of the management part of
the unit is on managing change. Students are taught
the leadership skills required to manage change with
confidence, bringing staff on board in commitment to
continuous improvement where the goal is the very
highest standard in science, animal welfare, staff
welfare and dignity at work.
Besides written assignments, students visit a site
where a successful change in the workplace culture
has been achieved, ask questions, discuss freely and
engage in practical exercises and role play to address
a range of workplace problems. Students also design
and deliver a presentation and answer stakeholder
questions, building their communication skills and
confidence to interact confidently with stakeholders at
all levels.
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Project Management
Theory and Practice
This unit is ideally geared towards people who are now
progressing their career in a management position.
Students get to grips with relevant management
theories underpinning their practical experience at
work. So often, difficulties arise in the workplace when
insufficient consideration is given to effective
communication strategies. Misunderstandings and
disagreements arise which can impede the progress of
important work objectives.
Students are encouraged to identify the key
stakeholders they will be working with, whose
perspectives and concerns may be very different from
those of the Animal Technologist; senior academics,
representatives and managers of various other
departments within their organisation and
professionals such as engineers, architects and
surveyors, to name but a few. The unit is delivered
through practical taught sessions, distance learning
and visits to sites of interest.
Students develop effective collaborative working and
communication strategies and get to hone their
interviewing, negotiating and information gathering
skills in a range of course activities designed to build
confidence in understanding the ‘bigger picture’ whilst
staying on track in the world of management. There is
a balance of academic study, management, soft skills
and learning through shared experience.
Building on learning acquired during the Project
Management; Theory and Practice unit. This unit gives
the student the opportunity to complete a written
account on their own project and present the project
benefits and achievements to key stakeholders.
Students are invited to outline, plan and evaluate a
project which could fall into any of the following
1. Scientific/Animal Welfare research.
2. Biomedical facility project.
3. Biomedical business or training project.
The unit is taught through a flexible tutorial model
which can be accessed by email, telephone or skype
depending on individual need and is ideal for people
combining study with work and home responsibilities.
Support is tailored to meet the needs of the individual.
The unit is academically robust, requiring submission
of a project proposal to agreed guidelines, two
extended written reports and a presentation on the
project objectives, achievements and benefits.
Students are encouraged to evaluate the lessons
learnt and demonstrate a commitment to both the
highest standards of animal and staff welfare and their
own continuous professional development.
An introduction to the Higher Education Programme Level 6
Students visit a Building Information Management
(BIM) room.
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April 2019 Animal Technology and Welfare
Intravenous Injection Training Project:
A Level 6 Higher Education project
Biological Services Facility, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of
Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT
Correspondence: carmen.abelda@lshtm.ac.uk
Intravenous (i.v.) injection via the lateral tail vein is a
route of administration when using animals in medical
research. It is the preferred route delivery of
substances, especially where avoidance of the first-
pass effect through hepatic metabolism is desired. It is
also used to mimic the proposed route of final
administration. However, it is technically difficult and
requires specialist training. Inaccuracies during
injection are common which deter researchers from
using the route, preferring instead to use more
common routes of dosing such as intraperitoneal
injection or oral gavage.
The use of live animals to gain technical skills is
ethically and legally prohibited and usually technical
competence is gained by practising on cadavers. This
project aims to establish whether there is a need to
use animal cadavers dead mice for training or
whether an alternative training tool is as effective. The
design of a training project is integral to the outcome
and in order for it to be successful, it must be on time,
within budget and to specification.
Key words: training, intravenous injections, mouse,
cadavers, technical skills.
Part 1 Planning and scoping
Section 1: Statement of the context
The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
(LSHTM) is a world-leading centre for research and
postgraduate education in public and global health.
Most research carried out using animals relates to
neglected or tropical disease and it is renowned for its
research as one of the highest rated institutes in the
country. The school’s mission is to improve health
equity in the UK and worldwide with an aim to create
policy, excellence in research, education and
translation of knowledge.
It has two buildings based in Bloomsbury and two
Medical Research Council (MRC) units in the Gambia
and Uganda and over 1300 staff working in over 100
different countries. LSHTM deploy research in real time
crises and deployed staff during the Ebola crisis in
Liberia and Sierra Leone in 2014.
A world leader in infectious tropical disease research,
some carried out in the biological services facility
where scientists are working on vaccines, treatments
and cures, to understand the basic biology and
progression of disease. Currently 5 full-time and 2 part-
time Animal Technologists cover all animal work. The
facility holds mice, hamsters, Zebrafish and all work is
underpinned by the 3Rs principles Reduction,
Replacement and Refinement. A member of the
Concordat of Openness on Animal Research, an
important objective is the publication of statistically
valid data of the highest scientific merit, which is
publicly available and peer reviewed. Research
infections include tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniosis
and Trypanosome cruzi.
Intravenous (i.v.) injection through the lateral tail vein of
mice in medical research is a common route of
administration with benefits including rapid distribution
through the bloodstream,
absorption buffering and
Experimental design researches which is the
optimum route of administration for the substances
being used, with intravenous often used to avoid the
‘first-pass effect through hepatic metabolism.
Additionally, i.v. is used to mimic the proposed route of
final administration.
Intravenous tail vein injections into the lateral tail veins
of mice require specialist training as injection
inaccuracy is commonplace. Injection into the lateral
tail vein of mice is a procedure used by a smaller
number of researchers than other, more common
routes of dosing, such as intraperitoneal injection (ip)
or oral gavage often due to technical difficulty.
Intraperitoneal administration results in slower
absorption into the vasculature. It may be used to inject
larger volumes, although is similar to parenteral
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Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project
administration (oral gavage or insertion of liquid
straight into the stomach). With the i.p. route
substances pass through the mesenteric vessels which
drain into the portal vein and pass through to the liver.
Data was analysed from the BSF in 2017 and there
was a high failure rate for i.v. administration of 42%. In
comparison, researchers assessed for intraperitoneal
injection in 2017 had a success rate of 100%.
Most literature available explains how to carry out this
procedure on live animals. Legally and ethically, a
trainee should not carry out this or any procedure on a
live animal until they are at least competent on a
This study will establish whether there is a need to use
animals (cadavers dead mice) for training or whether
an alternative training tool is as effective. According to
apart from the skill of the experimenter, using
the right technical aids and material is critical for
successful intravenous injections in mice.
The design of a training project is integral to the
outcome and in order for it to be successful, it must be
on time, within budget and to specification. Essential to
the project are the participants, trainer and assessor or
The use of cadavers for training in biomedical settings
is a controversial one, particularly concerning ethics
depending on where or how animals are sourced.
National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and
Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) launch in
2004 was in response to a House of Lords’ select
committee report, Animals in Scientific Procedures
report, which recommended a National Centre.
NC3Rs aim is to reduce, refine and replace animals in
scientific studies and provide e-learning resources,
which help toward training.
The Biological Services Facility (BSF) at LSHTM is a
Containment Level 3 (CL3) facility with aerosol
capacity. A small facility with only 56 Personal Licence
holders (PILs) of whom the majority have no
intravenous lateral tail vein experience.
This study aims to compare training with an aid, which
if successful, could potentially remove the need for
cadavers and eliminate the problem of unethical animal
use in practical training. A minimum of 20 participants
will be required for relevant statistical analysis.
Enrolment of participants will take place through
discussion with the Named Training and Competence
Officer (NTCO) to take part in a research project with a
surety that should they fail their competence
assessment in the trial, training would continue until
competence success. All participants expressed a wish
to learn this skill for future experimental purposes,
some explaining that it would have been a first-choice
method but difficulty with this method made them
choose an alternative route.
A trainer who could teach this technique in both
cadaver and the tool and an assessor ‘blinded’ to the
teaching method is essential for the project as well as
participants. The trainer will randomly train in one
method or another until considered competent at that
level. Number of training sessions and a formal
assessment of competence on a live animal by an
assessor will take place and result recorded.
Context has great bearing on a project and opens up
strategic issues that the project will need to address.
Tonnquist (2010)
has four criteria suggested as the
basis for a project
G determined and defined goal unique task
G determined time frame set schedule
G determined resources own budget
G special work model temporary organisation
These points will be addressed in order for project
Project work is often used in the short term to
complete a task, especially innovative techniques.
Learning within a project does not always transfer to
the day-to- day organisational setting. Project work is
seen as useful in allowing precise autonomy and
discretion with an allowance for flexibility in order to
move the project along. Usually they are employed in a
current or forward thinking setting and respond to rapid
changes in the market.
Organisational learning, particularly from projects
should be successful but quite often fails due to a lack
of capturing or translating newly learned routines or
practices. Organisational learning tends to happen in
sub-groups and may not be shared or transferable on a
larger scale. Projects tend to be in isolation from the
wider organisational context.
Another difference between project individuals and
organisations is that project members do not
necessarily see themselves as part of a team as they
may enter and leave the project at different points.
Organisation tends to have a strategy or vision aimed
at the whole team working towards a shared practice.
Project based learning is closely related to problem-
based learning. Learning is driven by challenging open-
ended problems and can be interchangeable.
and Duffy
suggest true knowledge lies in our
interactions with our environment.
Teamwork emphasis on learning for a project is an
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Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project
important factor, this project could not run without it.
Distributive cognition or the study of knowledge being
passed on and growing is also an important aspect of
project success.
Distributive cognition is concerned with structure and
finding a stable design which can be widely applicable.
In the normal working environment, teamwork is also
an important factor with distribution of knowledge and
skills. This tends to happen over a longer period in
comparison to a project where adhering to timeframes
are essential for success.
The defined goal or unique task in this project will be
the practical task of teaching intravenous tail vein
injections to participants (a training method) with the
recognised defined goal being the non-use of animals
(a successful training method).
The determined time frame will be realised through a
Gantt chart as a realistic set schedule. A budget will be
necessary to purchase equipment for the project. A
grant proposal must be put together to apply for
The special work model is a temporary re-organisation
of staff. The project will need use of staff resources for
Section 2: Synopsis
In this section, I will review previous research and the
problems this project will address. The purpose of this
study is comparative to identify whether two alternative
methods of training in intravenous administration into
laboratory mice via the lateral tail veins are equal or
better regarding competence outcome.
The physical characteristics of these models include
size, composition and ease of administration with
consideration of ethical acceptance.
This study will use wild type outbred cadavers versus a
training tool (Mimicky
mouse model)
to compare
competence outcome.
A learning and development
strategy is employed at LSHTM in order to develop
skills and competencies as well as maintaining
Continued Professional Development (CPD). The NTCO
is tasked with identifying gaps in skills or education and
ensuring training is available. SMART (specific,
measurable, achievable, realistic, time-bound)
objectives are useful as a measure and outline of
achievable goals. Procurement is also important for a
cost-effective approach and understanding.
There appears to be a problem in animal research
where researchers cannot train in a practicable manner
on their chosen animal model because:
G it is a live animal
G the law prohibits this
This however, poses a huge potential gap or absence in
training, as the route that must be followed tends to be
observational and on either cadavers or simulators.
There seems to be disparity among research
institutions and the methods they employ with varying
degrees of confidence.
For this study participants will undertake training in
parallel groups in a randomised controlled trial. Data
will be analysed by the number of training sessions
required and attempts to achieve competence.
The result of this study will determine whether
cadavers are necessary as training tools to achieve
competence in i.v. administration into the lateral tail
veins of mice.
The anticipated outcome would be that the training tool
is equally suitable removing the need for real mice.
These findings may be useful as a 3Rs (Replacement,
Refinement, Reduction) improvement to eliminate the
need for real mice.
Intravenous administration has a high failure rate. Out
of 1054 people on death row in the United States of
America awaiting execution from 1890 to 2010 by
lethal injection, 75 attempts or 7.12% of instances
initially failed for various reasons. Failure varied from
difficulty in finding a suitable vein (often due to
previous drug abuse in the prisoners), collapsed veins,
a blowout where the syringe comes out of the vein,
allergic reaction to the drugs, equipment failure, needle
inserted incorrectly and flowing away from the heart or
puncturing through the vein resulting in administration
into the soft tissue. The main cause of failure was
human error with questions raised regarding the
experience and training of prison staff in i.v.
Tail vein injections require skill and expertise, on
average 14% of material injected by this method sits in
the tail tissue.
An Automated Vascular System (A-VAS) system has
been developed to overcome this by Chang et al
but it
is not readily available on the market and requires
anaesthesia, system set up and considerably more
time for successful injection.
Qualitative and quantitative methods can be used,
qualitative by the researcher and level of resistance
when injecting and quantitative by Positron Emission
Tomography (PET) scans with the disadvantage being
time and cost.
There are three veins and one artery in the tail of a
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Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project
mouse. Two lateral veins and one dorsal caudal vein as
well as a ventral caudal artery. The lateral veins are
thick enough to allow for intravenous administration as
well as blood collection.
Failure to inject successfully can occur for a number of
reasons such as:
Incorrect placement of the needle: Needle inserted into
the artery and not one of the veins. The mouse has two
lateral tail veins and injection initiated nearer the tip of
the tail, if failure results there is an opportunity to
attempt again half way along the tail and further near
the base of the tail. This technique allows for six
attempts if required in order to achieve successful
injection in the mouse model or cadaver. Four attempts
maximum in a live mouse as any more may cause
Incorrect bevel position: The bevel should always face
upwards towards you for insertion. This allows for less
resistance when puncturing the skin. If the bevel is
incorrectly positioned it may cause occlusion to the
Incorrect needle size: There are various guidelines
regarding recommended needle gauge size for this
procedure, the smallest chosen, as a refinement. 27
gauge is standard size. Using too large a needle may
result in tissue trauma and too small may result in
pressure to the tail from prolonged plunger depression.
Length is equally important as too small may result in
subcutaneous injection and too long may be difficult to
depress resulting in puncture to the vein.
Subcutaneous placement: This results in a bleb or
bulge occurring on the tail usually seen by the naked
Needle pierced through vein: Needle inserted too far
exiting through the vein resulting in a subcutaneous
Movement when aspirating syringe: If restraint is not
firm enough and allows movement the needle can
dislodge from the original position.
Blunt needle: Each time a needle is used it becomes
dulled therefore should not be used for any more than
4 times for competence assessment before
Whilst there are alternative methods of measuring
success or failure of the administration of material into
the lateral tail vein of mice there is no previous
research or studies investigating the ethical context of
the use of cadavers.
Henri Fayol’s management theory is useful in keeping
management targets for the project on track.
has 14 principles of management but these can be
broken down into 5 main components.
Plan A good plan needs to be flexible in its
approach. It must be appropriate for the business
and the staff involved needs to be competent to
carry out tasks.
Organise Includes communication, responsibility,
authority and ensuring resources are available.
Co-ordinate For the project to run smoothly each
part must be completed in time for the next part of
the project to start. Many parts may need to run
Command The manager of the project should have
a good understanding of each aspect of the project.
Understand how the staff involved work and remove
staff who are incompetent or slowing the project
down unnecessarily.
Project goals and objectives
There is no previous research in the field of comparing
lateral tail vein injection training methods in a research
setting using mouse cadavers and a simulator.
A study to compare the two methods to determine if
simulator training is as effective is appropriate as
ethically to use cadavers is a controversial topic.
Training will take place over the course of a year in
order to encapsulate all researchers. The trainer will
determine how many sessions are necessary before
advising a competence assessment.
A member of staff whom is ‘blinded’ to the training
method will undertake the competence assessments
to determine a pass or fail result. i.v. injection outcome
can be easily assessed as the solution (Sodium
pentobarbitone) will either flow through the vein
resulting in schedule 1 euthanasia or the plunger will
not depress correctly. If unsuccessful it has no effect
on the animal. All mice in this study are excess
breeding stock and scheduled for euthanasia.
To reduce the use of cadavers for training in i.v. lateral
tail vein procedure by using a simulator, through a
comparison research study and a consultative
approach with AWERB for implementation by 2019.
To reduce/remove the use of mouse cadavers for
training in i.v. lateral tail vein injections.
To compare training method outcome through use of
a simulator and cadavers.
To implement a new training format using a
simulator with endorsement through AWERB by
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 6
Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project
To implement a new training format for i.v. lateral
tail vein injections by 2019.
In order to implement the new training format by
2019 the research comparison study must be
concluded with a positive outcome (higher success
Submission to AWERB as an agenda item for the
next meeting in January 2019.
The objective to reduce the need for mice supports
the 3Rs vision and part of the AWERB agenda.
By decreasing the use of cadavers, we will support
the 3Rs’ vision. There is the opportunity to drive this
alternative method to other research institutes,
particularly those who have no cadaver availability.
To complete the research comparison study by the
end of 2018.
To consult with AWERB for a change to the internal
training policy by January 2019.
To implement a new training programme in i.v.
lateral tail vein procedures by February 2019.
Peter Drucker was an innovative thinker and studied his
work using ideas to create management theory.
Drucker placed business ethics and morals high on his
agenda, which mirrors this study.
In 1954 Drucker published a book which looked at
management by objectives.
The belief is that if
employees manage their own objectives, they will
adhere to set standards and are more likely to fulfil
them. Using the SMART method helps to ensure an
objective is valid. Delegation of tasks empowers
employees allowing more control and interest.
According to the International Network for Humane
Education (InterNICHE) there is a need for change in
training methods due to the ethical nature of how and
what we train with. (See Figure 1.)
Figure 1. Flowchart to assess the source
of an animal cadaver, organ or tissue
according to the InterNICHE policy.
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 7
Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project
Organisational context
Identification of stakeholders is realised by determining
who is interested in the project, who has influence, who
can help to achieve it and equally who can obstruct. In
every project, there will be strengths, weaknesses and
recognition of these as near to the beginning as
possible is crucial. Staff expertise sourced internally
and the use of equipment and facilities can speed the
project up but will add a cost and burden to it.
PESTLE analysis (Political, Economic, Social,
Technological, Legal and Environmental) is relevant to
this project as research, development, marketing,
image, sales and reputation all potentially have a role.
Stakeholder map
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Figure 2. Stakeholder map. (Bryson, 1995)
G Animal Welfare and Ethics Review Board (AWERB)
members – Chair, Statistician, Scientist (Animal
Research), Scientist (Non-animal research),
Layperson, Quality and Governance manager,
NACWO x 2 (Named Animal Care and Welfare
officer), BSF Manager, NTCO (Named Training and
Competence Officer), NVS (Named Veterinary
G manager
G trainer
G assessor
G research participants
G funders
Stakeholders are important to manage as part of a
project as their level of influence and interest can
impact heavily. They may be individuals or groups and
should be included in strategy when planning a project.
The project could be successful in delivery and cost but
stakeholders should be satisfied in order for it to be
AWERB Committee members
High influence, high interest
The AWERB can be seen as a whole group rather than
individuals. There are various levels of influence within
the group members but there is high influence and
interest overall. As the project involves ethical and
welfare issues surrounding training using animals there
is potential for conflict between members. In order to
satisfy members’ specific expectations, a presentation
covering statistics, animal welfare, possible publication
or where the information will be going. The presentation
will also have to show the advantages with a guarantee
of completion of paperwork such as risk assessments
and standard operating procedures, General Data
Protection Regulation (GDPR) and that it is following the
law. Time management and training issues will also
have to be presented and how these will be dealt with.
A presentation to the AWERB seeking permission with
regular updates at their quarterly meetings to keep
them informed. Good communication is necessary for
this group. Without their permission the project will not
go ahead.
High influence, high interest
High influence because without support the project
cannot go ahead. High interest because of time
constraints on staff taking them away from normal
duties. They will also have interest regarding welfare
implications and will expect timeframes and legal
obligations to be met. Updates should be at least
weekly, keeping them well informed. This would be best
done face-to-face in a meeting.
High interest, low influence
Adequate information about the project and regular
communication should apply to ensure there are no
problems arising from the project. They can be helpful
when designing fine detail about the method of
procedures they will be training. As trainers they will
have a positive welfare interest in the project.
Motivation will come from the potential outcome. Detail
of the project and paperwork must be in place and daily
communication in person when trials are running.
High interest, low influence
Assessor has the same criteria as the trainer.
Research participants
High interest, low influence
Research participants will gain skill in a difficult
procedure so have interest but little influence on the
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Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project
project overall. They will require ongoing information
regarding dates, paperwork, etc., which will be provided
by the trainer as this is a blinded study. Email will be
the best communication method.
High influence, low interest
Funding will be sought through a public engagement
grant for the cost of the simulator therefore influence is
high as budget is required but interest low in this
project as funding is primarily for an alternative project.
If funding was aimed primarily at this project only,
influence and interest would be high. Feedback forms
to complete and specific deadlines for each step of the
project are necessary. Email is the best format to use.
Low influence, low interest
Statistician will be asked to randomise the participants
for it to be blinded to the assessor.
Risk Register
Refer to Excel spreadsheet (available on request from
the author).
A special work model or temporary organisation of staff
is necessary as described by Tonnquist in his 4
strategic issues for the project to succeed.
It would be
naïve to assume a project of this scale could run
without reorganisation of staff for a period of time.
Refer to Excel spreadsheet. (available on request from
the author).
Determined resources Own budget.
The amount of resources available can influence a
project. Stakeholders are important in order to support
the project in several ways. A budget is essential.
1. Standard operating procedure
SOP 64: i.v. Study Intravenous injection via lateral tail
vein training for cadaver and mouse simulator study.
SOP 100: i.v. Study Competence assessment for
intravenous injection via the lateral tail vein for mouse
mouse) comparison study.
The SOPs explain step by step how each process in this
study should be carried out. This guides the
participants and trainer/assessor. It also reduces drift
and increases the likelihood that each step is carried
out similarly for each participant encouraging
standardisation in techniques, training and expected
2. Stakeholder engagement
AWERB High influence, high interest.
FUNDERS High influence, low interest.
TRAINER High interest, low influence.
STATISTICIAN Low interest, low influence.
Stakeholder theory states that the interests of all
stakeholders should be taken into consideration.
R. Edward Freeman uses the term of business ethics
which appears to be an oxymoron.
He explains that
people have more than just a financial expectation or
interest. He also suggests that too much time is spent
identifying primary and secondar y stakeholders.
(Primary such as employees and secondary such as
legal authorities) This is a prime example in the case of
AWERB members where stakeholders come from both
primary and secondary backgrounds. The task of
communication needs to be very clear to this group by
defining each member’s stake or interest ensuring
each is communicated in as positive way as possible.
AWERB members are high interest, high influence
stakeholders as without permission from them for the
project it would not be able to proceed. The primary
agenda is welfare and ethics and so these values
should be communicated within the project. AWERB
meets every three months.
A document will need to be put together and
submitted in advance of the AWERB meeting. A
short presentation with a Q & A session should be
included on the agenda.
Updates should be presented as a written piece of
information (report) or as a short presentation at
AWERB dependent upon their preference.
The funders are willing to give small grant awards for
public engagement. These are high influence, high
interest in terms of public engagement but in this
instance after Public engagement (PE) work with the
simulator we would go on to use the model for the
study. Therefore, interest is lowered.
Communication would occur as requested by the
funders and needs to be on time and meeting
deadlines. In this case my starting point is working out
how I can add value to this project which meets the
needs of the funders.
Through an application form by email.
Through feedback form after the project.
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Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project
Low influence but extremely important for the project,
this stakeholder must work together with various other
members of the stakeholders for success. Little
influence politically but important for interaction with
various groups in order to move the project forward.
Face-to-face meetings to be clear and share ideas
and criticisms to improve the process.
Email in order to communicate SOP’s, risk
assessments and other important information.
Statistician does not politically have an effect and has
low interest as they are being asked to carry out part
of a procedure. Stakeholders in these positions can be
useful at looking at a project from an outside
perspective and may offer ideas or innovations.
Risk Register: Refer to risk register document
appendix (available from author on request).
Gantt Chart: Refer to Gantt chart document appendix
(available from author on request).
Budget: Refer to budget document appendix. (available
from author on request).
Ethics Committee approval
The AWERB at LSHTM reviews all work undertaken at or
associated with the institute. Initially an AWERB form
will need to be submitted to the chair of the committee,
this form will request details such as:
G plan of work
G objectives
G number of animals
G use of 3Rs
G severity banding
G endpoints, etc
The chair will then decide if the project is acceptable to
put forward to the committee which is made up of a
varied group which include:
Lay people, Non-animal scientists, Scientist, NTCO,
NACWO, NVS, etc.
The AWERB meets quarterly and so unless an
application is especially urgent and needs to have a
meeting convened, they will review every three months.
At the meeting the proposer of the project will be
invited to give a presentation and will then be
scrutinised by the board who will ask scientific and
welfare questions and attempt to refine, reduce and
replace the project as much as possible.
They will be asked to make any changes necessary
after suggestions as the project will be permitted to go
ahead after changes via email or they will be called
back to the next meeting if it requires further
AWERB will require regular updates and a retrospective
review completed in due course.
Part 2 – Implementing and
Delivery Methodology Alternative training method
using a mouse simulator in i.v. lateral tail vein
procedures reducing unethical cadaver usage.
Objective: To reduce the use of cadavers for training
in i.v. lateral tail vein procedure using a simulator
through a comparison research study and a
consultative approach with AWERB for implementation
by 2019.
Investigative Searches on Comparisons of lateral tail
vein injection training methods and ethics regarding
the use of cadavers revealed that this subject matter
was scarce. Relevant information was difficult to find
and it appeared, not to be investigated in depth. This
was important for the overall design of the project
because animals were involved and in order to
eliminate repetition, a systematic style approach was
Investigating data from 2017 regarding pass/failure
rates for competence assessments of procedures on
mice within the BSF at LSHTM it was noted that some
procedures had a higher success rate than others.
Intravenous injections into the lateral tail veins of mice
clearly exhibited as a more difficult technique with a
higher failure rate. (Data obtained and collated from
mandatory training files within the facility.)
Training is completed through a training process with
cadavers (dead mice) initially before moving on to the
next step with live animals which may take days,
weeks or months dependent upon the skill of the
trainee. Cadavers utilised at the facility for training
purposes are breeding stock surplus to requirement
and scheduled for culling. This is not an ethical source
of cadavers and this study will determine whether a
training tool (mimicky
mouse simulator)
would be
equally effective for successful assessment in
competence for this procedure. The simulator has two
lateral tail veins, mimicking a real mouse and is the
same size as a small to medium sized laboratory wild
type mouse. Liquid injected straight into the vein,
leads to a reservoir within the main body. (Emptied for
re-use) Participants selected had no previous
experience in i.v. injection technique.
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Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project
The project required an enormous amount of planning
and communication and the best way to see an
overview was through a Gantt chart.
A budget was necessary in order to purchase the
relevant equipment and so funds had to be sourced.
Health and Safety implications needed to be addressed
as participants would be working with live animals,
sodium pentobarbitone and sharps.
The study had to be blinded and randomised for
authenticity as statistical analysis would determine the
Animal Welfare and Ethical Review Board (AWERB) and
the Manager were highly important stakeholders in this
project and without their support the project would not
have worked. Delays occurred throughout the project
but most got completed within the necessar y
timeframe. Some issues came about from external
influence such as the delay for the simulator and these
types of issues were unavoidable.
Project delivery
On time
Within budget
To specification
Compare standard
training process
with a simulator
Statistical analysis
Enrolment of
Adhere to Gantt
chart specifications
Budget split into 3
divisional areas
including risk
standard operating
procedures in place
Blinded study to
compare a training
aid to determine a
better, worse or
similar outcome
A minimum number
of 20 candidates
necessary for the
study to have
Participants enrolled
through the NTCO
(named training and
competence officer)
with no prior
experience in lateral
tail vein injections
Training delivered as
a randomised trial in
house by the trainer
delivered through a
clear process of
pass/fail criteria
On time
On schedule
On schedule
Delays occurred but
major milestones
were achieved
Budget increased
slightly through
procurement but
partly offset as
inflation increase in
operating costs in
2019 were not
Slight delay of
competence SOP for
one participant
Initially extremely
delayed but study
completed on target
Some candidates
left resulting in new
recruits for the
study. Twenty
enrolled in total
Initial difficulty
sourcing candidates
with no previous
Delays due to staff
shortages, intake of
new species into
the facility, annual
leave and sickness
Process itself
worked well but one
candidate unable to
read SOP due to
A Gantt chart with
specific timeframes
to follow
Requested further
budget for additional
tail from manager
Started study with
one participant
before complete
assessment was
written up in order
to prevent further
Sourced the Curvet
Rat model initially
as mouse simulator
wasn’t available but
veins too large to
be a comparison so
Had to enrol new
participants mid-
term through the
Discussed the
possibility of
participants from
other local research
institutes but
legislation made
this difficult
Requested help
from other staff
members to help
cover trainers work
Some participants
had to be re-tested
due to incorrect
restraint used
Manager delivery
solution negotiated
and agreed
Health & Safety
Risks identified
Regular consultation
Staff members
Delivery solution
negotiated and
Stakeholder accepted
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Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project
Experienced in both
Number of training
Results recorded
Set schedule
Own budget
Project success
Innovative project
Impact on day to
day organisational
Precise autonomy
Capturing or
translating newly
learned routines or
Adaptable trainer to
develop a system
for training with both
cadaver and
Assessor to follow
process laid out in
the SOP and score
to competence
Results to be
recorded on a
Templates recording
Gantt Chart
Managed through an
Excel spreadsheet
Project managed
through planning,
communication and
re-shuffling of staff
and teamwork
Successful and
New product to the
market to be tested
and compared
meetings and staff
Utilising project
Allowing for the
possibility of some
technical errors
Working around
potential staffing
and participant
Captured through
assessments, SOPs
and re-organisation
of staff
On time
On schedule
On schedule
Slight delay
On schedule
On schedule
Sourced with no
Sourced with no
No problems
No problems
Not all exact
timeframes were
Minor adjustments
Issues not expected
such as a sickness
and new species
which wasn’t taken
into consideration
Delayed in parts but
successful overall
Promise of the
simulator took
longer to materialise
than originally
Difficult with a small
staff team
Project Management
delivery could have
been utilised more
efficiently with
Correct restraint not
used initially
resulting in re-
Staff were extremely
flexible but issues
such as a new
species being
introduced to the
facility only allowed
so much
Some staff resistant
to change
Other staff asked to
help cover work to
free up time for
trainer and
Some contingency in
place but should
have had more
More reproducible
studies necessary
Other staff
members required
to step up and help
Referred to Kotter,
Tonnquist, etc. for
Some assessments
were re-taken with
the correct
At certain points
throughout the
project when there
was time training
and competence
became a much
focussed area
Only volunteer
participants initially
asked to use this
new method
Trainer Regular
Delivery solution
negotiated and
Project Manager
Project Manager
Staff members
Staff members
Project Manager
Delivery solution
negotiated and
Regular consultation
Staff members
Build a stakeholder
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Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project
Sub Group
Wider organisational
whole team shared
Teamwork learning
Distributed cognition
or the study of
knowledge being
passed on and
Stable design to
pass on
Distribution of
knowledge and
Training method
Practical task
teaching injections
Non-use of animals
Training to be
delivered to other
members of staff
using the new
equipment and
change in culture
through delivery of
an alternative
training method and
leadership action to
promote time and
Involvement of the
whole team in
different aspects of
the project
Practical sessions
for the training team
Trainees to become
adept at utilising the
correct processes
and passing that
information on to
new trainees
A training
programme of
stable design
Right facilities,
staff, equipment
and experience
Evaluation through
statistical and non-
statistical analysis
On schedule
On schedule
Physical training is
the optimal method
but not all staff
have been trained
AWERB only meet 4
times per year
unless essential.
Slow process
Delay to objectives
through increased
Training went well
Finding enough
Results conclude
No recourse for
No recourse for
contingency yet as
AWERB initially
endorsed the study.
Results yet to be
Whole team support
requested and
No recourse for
No recourse for
Changing some of
the original
Larger sample size
and repeatable
experiment to be
Staff members
Stakeholder risk and
Staff members
Trainers delivery
solution negotiated
and agreed
communication and
All other
Project Results
This research was conducted for the reduction of
unethical cadaver usage and refinement by use of a
simulator for this procedure. The research outcome of
‘as good as’ a comparison between the two methods
would indicate the use of this alternative method with
no reduction in the quality of training and competence
assessment outcome.
This research is important in order to reduce the
unethical use of animals within research institutions.
While it is recognised that the mice used in this
experiment and generally for training purposes are
excess breeding stock they are still sourced according
to InterNiche
as unethical. There is also a
requirement to adhere to the law with regard to training
staff in procedures and new methods or unavailability
of cadavers prioritises this important research.
The study took place over a year using CD1 outbred
male and female mice aged between 9-12 weeks of
age and were sourced in-house from the breeding
facility in the Biological Services Facility at the London
School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. This strain
was selected as we hold a small breeding colony and
being albino and a larger strain of mouse, the tail veins
are clearer for training purposes.
Participants were a combination of researchers and
technical staff with mixed experience in different
procedures such as intraperitoneal injection, oral
gavage, etc. All participants had previous experience in
injection technique with a live mouse as an alternative
procedure. Participants were sourced through the
NTCO (Named Training and Competence Officer) and
were chosen according to no previous experience in
lateral tail vein injection. Participant names were
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 13
passed on to a statistician who randomised them for
training with either a cadaver or simulator. The trainer
who was experienced in both methods carried out the
training sessions and requested competence
assessments when necessary.
Training involved one or more sessions with the trainer
on the allocated training tool. Participants were shown
a short video at the start of the session.
Cadaver or
simulator was placed in the restraint by the trainer and
sterile water (0.2mls) was pre-loaded into a 27 guage
needle and 1ml syringe. Participants were given a
maximum of four cadavers after CO
administration and
cer vical dislocation as secondary method of
confirmation of death or equivalent opportunities with a
simulator. A maximum of three attempts starting at the
lower end nearer the tail tip and working up towards the
base on one vein before moving to the other vein
changing the needle after three attempts due to
potential blunting.
For competence assessment 0.3mls of Sodium
pentobarbitone (Euthatal) was pre-loaded by the
assessor ensuring there were no air bubbles present
and presented to the participant. They were informed
that this was a formal assessment of competence and
asked to read the accompanying SOP (standard
operating procedure) and competence sheet which
clearly labels pass and fail criteria. Pass/Fail
assessment is clear because the needle is not
inserted into the vein correctly the plunger will not
depress and liquid will not flow resulting in a live
animal. If successful the mouse will be euthanised.
Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project
Figure 3.
Figure 3 shows there appears to be no difference
between the simulator and cadaver. The chi square P-
value = 0.64. This does not mean that the two methods
are equally as good as each other because this
experiment was not set up as an equivalence trial. It
does mean that there is no evidence of a difference in
the pass rate using the two methods.
For this trial to be an equivalence experiment much
larger groups would be needed to gain sufficient
statistical power. This experiment had power with 10
per group to detect a difference in pass rates between
the two methods.
In conclusion the pass rate was lower than expected
There was no evidence of a difference in the pass
rate using the two methods, P = 0.64
The study was not powered for equivalence, or to
detect small differences in pass rates.
Stakeholder engagement
Initially held a meeting with the manufacturer outlining
the study but with a rat model as the mouse model was
not available at that time. Manufacturer agreed to loan
the rat model for the study. We were informed that a
mouse model was going to become available whilst
paperwork was being written, weeks into the project.
This put the project back considerably but was a better
comparison model. This delay was not attributed to the
company supplying the model as they were setback by
the manufacturer. It was an unfortunate problem but
attributable to the manufacturer, overseas.
G there were some one-to-one meetings but mostly
email communication
It may have been prudent to have looked further afield
to see if any other models were available as it delayed
the project but at the time the goal was near but kept
being delayed. Communication, negotiation and a new
project plan should have been drawn up at an earlier
In conclusion as this model was especially new to the
market and unavailable it probably could not have been
sourced easily elsewhere. Communication with all
stakeholders regarding delay is crucial and particularly
participants to ensure numbers were maintained for
the study.
Funding manager
The project started unsuccessfully as funding was not
initially available and alternative funding sources had to
be found. There were three main costs that required a
budget for this project.
G operational such as the use of facilities to
perform training, etc
G labour employee time used to perform the study
G material procurement – equipment such as the
simulator, syringes, etc
Stakeholder engagement took place via a meeting with
the manager. The project outline was explained and he
was keen for the project to go ahead. He was happy to
allow for the whole project to be costed internally apart
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Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project
from the simulator as this was a very expensive piece
of equipment. Persuasion was applied as to the benefit
of the project on animal welfare and the application of
the 3Rs (Replacement, Refinement, Reduction) through
a series of one-to-one meetings and it was agreed that
half the cost would be paid from the budget. This still
left a problem of how the other half would be sourced.
A public engagement Wellcome grant for the full
amount of the simulator was available and so a
proposal was put forward to engage schoolchildren in
animal research using the model in a workshop setting.
This was a successful bid and after fulfilling public
engagement (PE) duties the simulator was available for
the study. The manager agreed to pay for an additional
tail from the budget and in this instance all worked
It is important to include the manager in all aspects of
information regarding the study as in this case he was
very influential. Without support from the manager this
project would not have transpired.
This situation could have improved if there had been
initial budget available for this type of project. All staff
working with animals in research should look to
improve, replace, refine or reduce through studies and
observation. Working in a research facility is an ideal
location to carry out research to make improvements
with equipment and staff already in place.
A recommendation would be to implement a budget
internally allowing for innovation in this field.
Animal Welfare and Ethics Review
Board (AWERB)
The AWERB’s role is to improve both animal welfare
and the quality of science, endorse the 3Rs and
promote a ‘Culture of Care’.
Made up of a mixed
group of people representing welfare, science and the
general public, projects put forward are usually very
well debated. The project got the green light from the
chair of the AWERB but ethical questions were raised:
Excess breeding stock as an unethical source. This
was debated as some members regarded excess
breeding stock as an ethical source. There will
always be an excess of breeding stock no matter
how well a colony is bred but refinements will only
go so far and therefore it would appear fair to use
them as by products.
The use of 3Rs for this project was highlighted and
agreed. It is difficult to find a whole cohort
agreeable to each part of the project but the
decision was taken to allow the project to go ahead.
The main concern was ethics and welfare.
Some concern over how well-trained staff would be
with the simulator on the live animal in a
competence assessment setting. It was explained
that unsuccessful i.v. injection would not work
(depressor will not plunge) and that mice would be
unharmed (mild needle stick).
In conclusion going forward institutions need to
communicate and work together to make every animal
count. Collaborative work should potentially be included
in Project Licences to allow for animal tissue to be
utilised between research institutes and less secrecy
involved in results before publishing.
Due to the length of time that it took to carry out the
whole project and being a small facility with limited
staff resources some participants contracts ended or
moved on to other employment. This resulted in less
than the minimum number of 20 participants needed
for statistical comparison in this study. An influx of new
starters spread out over the whole project alleviated
More communication was needed with participants and
in hindsight regular emails should have been provided.
Some stakeholders left and this was only discovered a
few days before they were due to leave. There was
some discussion into sourcing possible stakeholders
from local research institutions but due to the amount
of legislation and red tape surrounding local rules which
would have been substantial it was decided against
Due to the length of time that the whole project took it
was fortunate that new starters were enrolled on to the
These stakeholders were crucial for the actual study
and initially did not need much communication.
Recommendation would be more communication with
this group particularly if the project becomes delayed.
Some stakeholders thought the project had ended due
to lack of information.
Risk Register
Refer to Risk Register document.
Managing a budget is a key responsibility as part of
overseeing a project. The three main budgetary
subsections were:
G material procurement products necessary to carry
out the project
G operating costs room charges and administration
G labour costs professionals carrying out training
and competence
Financial management came in several forms of
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 15
Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project
G sources of cash
Full funding was not available internally and so an
external source had to be sought (Public Engagement
G justification of expenditure
The AWERB played a key part in justifying the ethical
review and worth of the project with the Manager’s
support vital for the operating and labour costs
A public engagement (PE) grant of £1000 was awarded
which was used for the purchase of the simulator and
some other additional items for the PE project. The
purchase of this piece of equipment was at the
forefront of the project initially as without it there would
not be a comparison model. VAT was not accounted for,
so extra funds had to be sourced as initially I had
overspent. The PE team agreed to pay the additional
overspend and I began factoring this into my future
budget management.
Operational and labour costs also hadn’t initially been
considered and so it was fortunate that my Manager
backed this project as the following were all extra costs
that needed to be accounted for. This would have
meant applying elsewhere for extra funding such as the
NC3Rs and the project would have been delayed
Methodology analysis
The project initially was not delivered on time. Delays
included budget issues because there was no provision
available for this type of study. This sadly is something
that needs to be addressed at managerial level. There
are more and more innovative opportunities to make or
refine products that benefit animal welfare
communicated through bulletins and media in industry.
Unfortunately, management systems are generally not
allocating a budget for innovation. Tied into this
dilemma is time and giving staff the opportunity to
project manage an idea or study. Stakeholder
engagement and paperwork are time consuming when
completed efficiently and effectively.
Participant numbers were researched prior to the start
of the project and twenty appeared to be a feasible
number but with such a small facility and small number
of experienced technical staff this became a challenge
for a period. Study design should always be well
thought out and not too adventurous dependent upon
the resources already in place. Only one trainer and
assessor were sourced for this project, there was no
contingency available should one of these staff
members become absent. There should have been a
back-up plan to either train or bring an experienced
person in as contingency.
Correct restraint for procedure was unavailable for at
least four candidates and had to be re-tested.
Equipment should always be checked prior to an
assessment. This resulted in further assessment with
the correct equipment and potentially influenced
results as participants had one more opportunity to, in
effect, train. The study showed that there was no
difference in pass rates but would have to be repeated
with larger numbers to detect solid differences.
Stakeholder feedback
Refer to Questionnaire sheet.
Budget analysis
Refer to Budget document.
Professor D.A. Kolb is quoted saying: ‘Knowledge
results from the combination of grasping experience
and transforming it’. Kolb’s research displays that
expertise, reflection, conceptualisation and
experimentation are a continuous cycle and hold a
relationship together.
Learning by doing and then
reflecting on new skills or attitude changes.
Constructivism states that knowledge is constructed
based on personal experiences and hypotheses of the
environment. They are both similar concepts and have
place in the project learning cycle regarding this
It was surprising to learn that this subject matter was
scarce, when developing a theory, it was important that
the underlying content was balanced in order that
experiential learning could occur. There are many more
potential projects to investigate.
Experience through delivering this project has taught
me that the unknown risk of making assumptions can
make stakeholders fearful. Impact and risk with
contingency must be created when delivering a project
to alleviate fear.
Learning develops through information gathering. At the
beginning of the project the original hypothesis was
different to the conclusion at the end. It changed and
developed, my assumption that excess breeding stock
was a totally ethical source of cadavers changed. This
information further strengthened the project as an
additional criterion was discovered.
The project was personally relevant to my role in
training, it had meaning and I was interested to learn
the outcome. Experientially I discovered that the
quicker and well organised a project is the better the
outcome. Projects should be completed in as short a
space of time as possible as delay adds to additional
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 16
Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project
cost, both financially and otherwise having a direct
impact in this project on candidate placement.
It is important to have perspective on a project,
completing paperwork such as SOPs and Risk
assessments may not seem so important but connect
to other relationships within the project. Part of
experiential learning is connecting and forming
relationships with stakeholders and engaging.
The project became immersive at some points and
reflective and at a later stage allowing for re-
examination of values. Until completely involved in a
project it is hard to understand fully the changes that
occur on your perspective over time.
The project did not have an equivalent level of success
and in order to test this, 356 participants with
cadavers and 356 participants with simulators would
be necessary to obtain enough statistical power. This
is such a small facility it would take years to complete
but could potentially be a collaborative work with other
facilities. Sometimes one must leave their comfort
zone in order to enhance learning and provide
innovative welfare research projects.
“If at first you don’t succeed, try, and try again.”
https://LSHTM.ac.uk Accessed: 24.09.18
ht tps :// www.L SHT M.a c.u k/research/resear ch-
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proving-intravenous-injection-in-black-mice.pdf Accessed:
the-mouse/ Accessed:26.09.18
Turner, P.V., Brabb, T. Pekow, C. and Vasbinder, M.A.
(2011). Administration of substances to laboratory
animals: Routes of administration and factors to consider.
Journal for the American Associates for Laboratory Animal
Science: JAA LAS, 50(5),600-313 Accessed: 26.09.18
pdf/Endorsed_E-T.pdf Accessed: 28.08.18
Bannerman, P.L. (2008). Defining the future of project
success: a multilevel framework. Paper presented at PMI
Research conference: Defining the future of project
management, Warsaw, Poland. Newton Square, PA:
Project Management Institute. Accessed: 26.09.18
Knight, A. A conscientious objection to harmful animal
use within veterinary and other biomedical education.
Animals: an open access journal form MDPI.2014;4(1):
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Tonnquist, B. (2010). projektledning, Stockholm: Bonnier
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Jacky Swan (Warwick Business School, UK, Sue Newell
(Bentley College, US and Warwick Business School, UK)
and Harry Scarbrough (Warwick Business School, UK)
Why don’t (or do) organisations learn from projects.
Accessed: 27.09.18
66e84ea0b2eeda5e73ibl.pdf Accessed:26.09.18
ch4.pdf Accessed: 26.09.18
https://www.vet-tech.co.uk/laborator y-supplies/
Accessed: 20.11.18
Accessed: 20.08.17
Questionnaire conducted with NTCO’s in London
Institutions (Imperial, UCL, Crick, etc.)
Accessed: 01.10.18
https://www.nc3rs.org.uk/the-3rs Accessed: 19.08.17
furman-botched-execution Accessed: 25.09.17
Chang, Y-C., Berry-Pusey, B., Yasin, R. et al. (2015). An
automated mouse tail vascular access system by vision
and pressure feedback. IEEE/ASME transactions on
mechatronics: a joint publication of the IEEE industrial
electronics society and the ASME dynamic systems and
control division. 2015; 20(4): 1616-1623 doi:10.1109
TMECH.2014.2360886 Accessed: 29.08.18
Vines, D.C., Green, D.E., Kudo, G. and Keller, H. (2011).
Evaluation of mouse tail-vein injections both Qualitatively
and Quantitatively on small Animal PET tail scans, 2011,
J.NMT, vol 39, no 4, 264-270 Accessed: 21.09.18
The Laboratory Mouse, Institute for Laboratory Science,
Hannover medical shop, Hanover, Germany, Part 5,
Procedures, 2012 Accessed: 16.09.17
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https://www.business.com/ar ticles/management-
Bryson, J. (1995). Strategic planning for public and non-
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Andrea Rehman, Statistician, LSHTM
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Intravenous Injection Training Project: A Level 6 Higher Education project
McLeod, S.A. (2017). Kolb learning styles. Retrieved
from www.simplypsychology.org/learning-kolb.html
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Edward Hickson, The Singing Master, 1836
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Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 18
April 2019 Animal Technology and Welfare
Animal Technologist Exchange Programme:
A Level 6 Higher Education Project
CBS Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road W12 0NN
Correspondence: m.bilton@imperial.ac.uk
Based on a Level 6 HE project management assignment
It was brought to the attention of the Institute of Animal
Technology that the biomedical industry lacked a formal
way in which Animal Technologists can exchange with
each other in other scientific establishments to gain
further knowledge and skills. The Animal Technologist
Exchange Programme (ATEP) has been devised to
provide a structured way for Animal Technologists to
The programme is open to all levels of Animal
Technologists including apprentices and exchanges can
be of varying durations.
Key words: Animal Technologists, exchange programme,
skills, training, Continuing Professional Development
It was brought to the attention of the IAT council that
there is a lack of providing a formal way in which Animal
Technologists can exchange. There is already a way for
Named Animal Care and Welfare Officers (NACWOs) to
exchange. In the light of openness in the industry it was
deemed strange that animal facilities open their doors
to school children and media but are reluctant to open
their doors to people in their own profession. If planned
and executed in a professional manner the IAT Animal
Technologist Exchange Programme (ATEP) would be of
great benefit to both Animal Technologists because it
will provide a safe and structured way of working in
other facilities which may differ from the facilities they
are currently working in, and for the hosting facility in
gaining Animal Technologists whose skill sets may differ
from their own which in turn could provide training.
A SWOT analysis is a structured method that evaluates
strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of a
project. The SWOT analysis below, evaluates the above
elements for the ATEP.
Project will provide a forum for developing/training
Animal Technologists. There is currently a lack of
this type of development.
Project will increase communication between animal
facilities and help build a network.
Exchanges could take some time to arrange.
Would need support from facilities to be successful.
If animal facilities are not supportive of the
programme it will not work.
Gap in the industry for this kind of programme.
Could be developed further with support from the
Home Office, and training and development
Opportunities for Animal Technologists to upgrade
key skills which will improve animal welfare across
the industry.
Would identify supportive employers and other
Could help develop case studies at the end to
demonstrate benefits of the programme to others.
Other organisations could develop a programme
that is similar.
A lack of employer engagement due to resources,
costs, barrier concerns and uneasiness over staff
being headhunted.
Project goals
The aims of the Animal Technologist Exchange
Programme are:
1. To exchange good practice in the care and welfare
of animals used in science.
2. To develop a network of Animal Technologists for all
sectors of the industry.
3. To identify designated trainers in skills that are
currently not widely available.
4. To provide Continued Professional Development
(CPD) opportunities.
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 19
Animal Technologist Exchange Programme: A Level 6 Higher Education project
It is important to deliver these project goals in a SMART
way. SMART is an acronym for Specific, Measurable,
Achievable, Realistic and Timely/time bound (SMART)
that has been credited to both Peter Drucker and G.T.
Doran, though it is difficult to identify whether either of
these two was really the first person to use the term.
Key people/key stakeholders
Project lead or project manager
Chair of the Animal Welfare Group (Matthew Bilton) on
behalf of the Institute of Animal Technology will ensure
that the programme is delivered to the highest of
standards and ensures the reporting continues at
regular intervals.
Career Animal Technologists
These have an interest to participate in the programme
and a major big part to play in upgrading key skills and
building a network. They will also have documentation
to complete and provide feedback.
Animal facilities in academia, pharmaceutical
establishments and industry
Will host participants and ensure their safety while on
site. Hosts will contribute greatly by passing on
knowledge and helping participants develop key skills.
Hosts will have an interest on how the programme will
work and what their responsibilities are.
IAT Council
Will have overall responsibility for developing and
running the programme and will deal with any
complaints regarding the programme. The IAT Council
can change the remit of the programme.
IAT Website Coordinator
Will advertise and develop a webpage. Will also help
devise online forms and format. Will have an influence
on all these developments.
Home Office
Although not a client, any project that will help improve
animal welfare and increase the skills Animal
Technologists develop will make them a distant
IAT members
The IAT Council acts on behalf of its members and are
accountable to them. Having a successful technologist
exchange programme would be a good thing to present
as an achievement for the IAT.
Named Training and Competency Officer
The Named Training and Competency Officer (NTCO)
is responsible for ensuring that all those dealing with
animals are adequately educated, trained and
supervised at the establishment they work, until they
are competent and that they continue to undertake
appropriate fur ther training to maintain their
Specific. Outline in a clear statement precisely what is
All four aims listed above, suggest in clear words what
the outcomes of everyone involved in the Animal
Technologist Exchange Programme, from the Animal
Technologists themselves to the facilities hosting in the
programme, what the programme will provide.
Measurable. Include a measure to enable monitoring of
progress and to know when the objective has been
1. To exchange good practice in the care and welfare of
animals used in science.
2. To develop a network of highly skilled Animal
Technologists for all sectors of the industry.
Measuring: The amount of technicians taking part in
the programme.
Measurement tool: a list of names and facilities and
which sector they work in. The number of names on
the list will be an indication of how successful this
aim is.
3. To identify designated trainers in skills that are not
widely available.
Measurement tool: list of skills and trainers.
4. To provide Continued Professional Development
(CPD) opportunities.
Measurement tool: the amount of facilities who use
the programme and include it in their technologists’
Achievable. Objectives should be achievable. They can
be stretching but not unachievable.
If developed and communicated in the right way all
objectives can be achieved. The measurement tools
show accountability and if the outcomes have been
Realistic. Focus on outcomes rather than the means of
achieving them.
All outcomes are positive and are what all clients want
from an Animal Technologist Exchange Programme. It is
important that the outcomes are viewed as a positive, by
employers and managers. The outcomes of the
programme will improve the technologists on the
programme and animal welfare.
Timely or time-bound. Agree the date by which the
outcome must be achieved.
The project should be completed by March 2019 ready
for implementation at IAT Congress 2019.
Figure 1. SMART objectives.
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Animal Technologist Exchange Programme: A Level 6 Higher Education project
Core Role: Setting local standards, applying local
standards, Record systems, Supervision and
Competence Assessment Continuing Professional
Development (CPD), Review and Communications.
Animal Facility Managers
Animal facility managers will have the skills and
qualifications of senior Animal Technologists but will be
responsible for a number of different animal areas/
facilities controlled by senior technical staff. They will
have overall responsibility for the day-to-day operations,
including budget control, implementation of policy,
staffing and appointments and helping to promote a
culture of care within their organisation.
Potential change agents: Key players:
G Animal facilities in G IAT Council
academia, pharmaceuticals
and industry
G Career Animal
G IAT members
G IAT Website Coordinator
G Project lead
G Animal facility managers
Indifferent: Back-yarders:
G Home Office G Education providers
Low Interest level
Name/position Role Reason for
Chair of IAT Project lead Oversees the
Animal Welfare running of the
Group programme. Contact
with suggestions for
improvements or
Secretary IAT Point of contact The point of contact
Animal Welfare for programme to arrange
Group exchanges. Will
between the two
interested facilities.
IAT Council Overall Project Lead will
leadership for report to Council on
programme progress of
programme. Will
deal with any
misconduct issues
or concerns by
and/or IAT.
Host facility Will host Will be contacted by
Animal Animal Welfare
Technologists Group secretary with
Will contact the
sending facility’s
technician with
times/dates of visit.
Sending facility Will send Will contact Animal
technologists Welfare Group
secretary with
details of technician
to participate in
programme and
purpose of visit.
IAT website Advertise the Responsible for the
coordinator programme and content of the
maintain the webpage and will
webpage interact with
project lead in this
In consultation with
project lead/IAT
Council will maintain
the webpage and
update as required.
Animal Programme Request via their
Technologists/ participation line managers/
IAT members NTCOs to take part.
in the programme Will contact the IAT
Animal Welfare
Group secretary or
IAT Council any
feedback positive or
negative of the
programme. Will be
informed on the
progress of the
programme annually.
Table 1. Potential influences leading to change.
It is vital for the Animal Technologist Exchange
Programme (ATEP) to be successful that all
stakeholders have an input and are always informed.
For stakeholder engagement to be successful several
ways of communicating will be needed, this will be face-
to-face at IAT Council meetings, online and/or via the
phone. When communicating to stakeholders the
“POURS” system will be used as this system will avoid
any misunderstandings and bring about action points
that are relevant.
Plan What to tell and ask.
Outline Understanding, clarify objectives and
seek feedback.
Use Open questions to gain further information.
Reflect Use closed questions for confirmation.
Summarise Agree actions.
Communication plan:
Table 2. Communication plan.
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Animal Technologist Exchange Programme: A Level 6 Higher Education project
In his book Supervisory Management P.W. Betts
describes any plan for communicating effectively
should conform to a scientific or logical method.
suggests a general approach as:
G clarify the purpose of the communication
G consider the type of communication
G obtain the relevant information
G assess the receiver
G determine the best means of communicating
G decide on the channel or channels to use
G assess oneself
G arrange the communication
G transmit the message
G check for understanding
G follow up
This communication plan and the systems in place will
address the threats set out in the SWOT analysis of
employers not engaging in the programme that could be
due to resources, costs and barrier concerns.
Risk register
Risk management is critical to the success of any
project and must be developed during the planning
stages of the project management process.
The risk register starts, of course, with a risk
management plan. The project manager must seek
input from team members as well as stakeholders and
possibly even end users. The risk register or risk log
becomes essential as it records identified risks, their
severity and the actions to be taken. It can be a simple
document, spreadsheet or a database system but the
most effective format is a table. Tables present a great
deal of information in just a few pages.
Managers should view the risk register as a
management tool through a review and updating
process that identifies, assesses and manages risks
down to acceptable levels. The register provides a
framework in which problems that threaten the delivery
of the anticipated benefits are captured. Actions are
then instigated to reduce the probability and the
potential impact of specific risks.
Project planning document
Project Name: Animal Technologist Exchange
Programme (ATEP).
Planning of the project will involve a various number of
stages such as highlighting key issues, generating
ideas and opinions, making decisions and assessing
Before implementation of the plan the 5 Cs of decision
making are a good reminder of the process.
1. Consider: Clarify the nature of the project, time and
other constrains, ask what information is needed
and identify objectives.
2. Consult: Gather the most information available, call
a meeting of those involved for consultation and
decide when the consultation will stop.
3. Crunch: Review all options and make a decision.
Write the implementation plan.
4. Communicate: Provide briefings on what will
happen, why and who the decision affects, back-up
briefing with written confirmation of decision. Make
sure everyone understands when the decision will
be implemented.
5. Check: The briefing is carried out. Run spot checks
to monitor effectiveness and review the impact of
the decision and take corrective action.
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 22
Animal Technologist Exchange Programme: A Level 6 Higher Education project
Implementation plan
Stakeholder engagement
Communication with stakeholders:
Step by step plan Completed Comments
Identity All stakeholders
stakeholders have been identified
and included in the
project scoping
document. Their
importance and
effect they could
have on the
programme is
demonstrated in a
grid within the
scoping document.
Complete a Scoping document
scoping completed. This
document document contains
all relevant
information related
to the programme.
This includes
statement of the
background to the
problem, project
goals which are
SMART, identifies
key stakeholders
and has a risk
register and
overview budget of
the project.
Consult the The Animal Welfare
IAT Council Group were tasked
on how the by IAT Council to
project will develop and
work implement the plan.
Items discussed
were why and how
the programme will
work. It was agreed
the Welfare Group
will devise a
document and
develop a way of
advertising the
Develop an Information
information document written up
document and is loosely based
relating to the on the information
Animal provided for the IAT
Technologist NACWO Exchange
Exchange Programme. This
Programme document identifies
the aims of the
programme. The
responsibilities of
the hosting
institution, the
visitor and the IAT.
This relates to all
different checklists
and reports for the
Consult with The IAT Website
the IAT Coordinator was
Website tasked with helping
Coordinator the group and was
on how to sent a copy of the
develop the information
information document. This was
document into changed with their
an online form input to have a
and the professional look.
development The forms are
of a webpage currently under
review and is hoped
the Website
Coordinator will
develop the form
into a more online
friendly format. A
webpage is
completed for the
Draw up a It was suggested
list of all by the Chair of the
institutions IAT Council to look
signed up to the at the institutions
Concordat of signed up to the
and develop using the Council
a contact list contacts obtain
some email
addresses and
develop a standard
email ready to send
out details of the
programme when
finalised and ask
them to sign up to
the programme.
Send out a To be completed
standard email once programme is
to all contacts live.
asking initiations
to sign up to the
Table 4. Implementation plan.
Table 5. Methods of communication.
Stakeholder Influence Method of Frequency
IAT Council Key players Face-to-face At Council
meetings every
two months
IAT Website Potential Face-to-face, At least
Coordinator change agent email monthly
Career Animal Key player email, When Animal
Technologists advertisements Technologist
in IAT programme is
Home Office Indifferent email As required
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 23
Animal Technologist Exchange Programme: A Level 6 Higher Education project
Betts suggests that any omission of a step may reduce
the effectiveness of the communication.
The table above suggests the best way of
communication with key stakeholders. Their influence,
frequency and method of communication are
considered. All the steps that Betts suggests as a
general approach should be taken with all the
stakeholders suggested in the table above.
The main
methods of communication will be either face-to-face or
by e-mail. Both ways of communicating will need some
consideration. In the Chartered Management
Institutes checklist series Managing Business
Communications’, they describe that email is widely
used, however it could be easy to misuse this tool.
They suggest it is advisable to:
1. Think about presentation and formality.
2. Consider how to open and close the message.
3. Use good practice for written business
communication. Examples include: be brief and
succinct, keep things simple and clear, avoid using
jargon, write in full sentences, explain what the
email is about, use good grammar, punctuation
and spelling and only communicate things that you
would be willing to commit to paper or would be
happy for colleagues or outside contacts to see.
4. Structure the message in a logical way.
5. Make good use of the subject line.
6. Avoid strings of messages, where possible.
7. Take care with group messages.
8. Use ‘urgent’ markers sparingly.
9. Avoid humour, irony or sarcasm.
10. Check before sending large attachments.
11. Ensure clarity of ownership and legality.
All of these recommendations will be used when
emailing the stakeholders. Many stakeholders have
limited time to go through emails and some consist of
large groups of people, an example being the twenty-six
people making up the IAT Council. The steps above are
a logical way when sending emails.
With face-to-face communication the CMI checklist
series suggests:
Consider whether face-to-face communication is
Clarify the purpose of the communication and its
expected outcome.
Choose the time and place.
Adopt the right tone.
Set the scene.
Be aware of attitudes, values and expectations.
Develop questioning and listening skills.
Most of the face-to-face communication will be with the
IAT Council where time and place is already
determined, however the checklist is also a logical
choice of way/method and will be used in all face-to-
face communication.
Gantt chart:
A Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart developed as a
production control tool in 1917 by Henry L. Gantt, an
American engineer and social scientist. Frequently
used in project management, a Gantt chart provides a
graphical illustration of a schedule that helps to plan,
coordinate and track specific tasks in a project.
Gantt charts may be simple versions created on graph
paper or more complex automated versions created
using project management applications such as
Microsoft Project or Excel.
Project management:
implementation and evaluation
Project Implementation document:
IAT Animal Technologist Exchange Programme (ATEP).
Delivery methodology:
In the project planning document, the following steps in
implementation were identified. Comments in italics
describe how the steps were implemented and
Chart 1. Gantt chart of project activity.
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 24
Animal Technologist Exchange Programme: A Level 6 Higher Education project
Step by step plan Completed Comments
Identity All stakeholders
stakeholders have been identified
and included in the
project scoping
document. Their
importance and
effect they could
have on the
programme is
demonstrated in a
grid within the
scoping document.
Update: This step
was delivered on
time as identified in
the relevant Gantt
chart and included
in the project
scoping document.
No new
stakeholders have
come forward during
the implementation
Complete a Scoping document
scoping completed. This
document document contains
all relevant
information related
to the programme.
This includes
statement of the
background to the
problem, project
goals which are
SMART. Identifies
key stakeholders
and has a risk
register and
overview budget of
the project.
Consult the The Animal Welfare
IAT Council Group were tasked
on how the by IAT Council to
project will develop and
work implement the plan.
Items discussed
were why and how
the programme will
work. It was agreed
the Welfare Group
will devise a
document and
develop a way of
advertising the
Update: This was
done regularly at
each IAT Council
meeting as part of
the Animal Welfare
Group repor ts to
Council. This is an
ongoing process as
identified in the
Gantt chart. There
have been a few
ideas from Council
regarding the
Programme. This
includes opening
the exchange
programme to
apprentices which
was not included in
the original scoping
Develop an Information
information document written up
document and is loosely based
relating to the on the information
Animal provided for the IAT
Technologist NACWO Exchange
Exchange Programme. This
Programme document identifies
the aims of the
programme, the
responsibilities of
the hosting
institution, the
visitor and the IAT.
This relates to all
different checklists
and reports for the
Update: This was
developed following
consultation with
other members of
the Animal Welfare
Group and the IAT
Consult with The IAT Website
the IAT Coordinator was
Website tasked with helping
Coordinator the group and was
on how to sent a copy of the
develop the information
information document. This was
document into changed with their
an online form input to have a
and the professional look.
development The forms are
of a webpage currently under
review and it is
hoped the Website
Coordinator will
develop the form
into a more online
friendly format. A
webpage is
completed for the
programme but not
currently live.
Update: At the time
of writing, this is
delaying the project.
The Website
Coordinator is busy
working on other
projects related to
the IAT Congress.
There has been
frequent contact
with the Website
regarding this step.
regarding online
forms are scheduled
in for Congress
2019. This has
been an unforeseen
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 25
Animal Technologist Exchange Programme: A Level 6 Higher Education project
Stakeholder engagement report:
The following table was included in the project planning
document and indicated who the stakeholders are and
how they were going to be contacted.
IAT Council
Engagement with the IAT Council was frequent and
activity regarding project included in the Animal Welfare
Group reports. There were always plenty of suggestions
including one of using the Concordat on Openness
which proved to be a good starting point in identifying
contacts and the number of institutes there were to
target. As a key player and Council being responsible
for delivering the ATEP, the advice was used and
followed up. The frequency of discussion continues to
be every two months.
IAT Website Coordinator
As identified in the project planning document the
IAT Website Coordinator has been a potential
change agent. Below are examples of emails sent
with the Coordinator’s suggestions. The original
email suggested a standard worded email to
advertise the programme.
Email 1:
I will make a start on getting a webpage set up for
you and let you see a mock up before publishing.
Just in relation to the email text below may I make
the suggestion below?
Dear Sir/Madam,
The IAT Animal Welfare Group are delighted to
introduce the Animal Technologist Exchange
This programme will complement the NACWO
Exchange by providing further opportunities for staff
Aims of the programme are:
To exchange best practice in the care and welfare
of animals used in science.
1. To share knowledge between Academia, Contract
Research and Pharmaceutical industries.
2. To identify designated trainers in skills that are
not widely available.
3. To provide an opportunity to network with other
4. To provide Continued Professional Development.
Take a look at the attached document and the
information on the IAT website for more details
about the Technologist Exchange Programme.
Email 2:
We are trying to move many of the forms to online
Having looked through this report form I am not
sure it will work but I will see what I can do.
The move to online forms contents of email 2 has
proven to be the current main delay. The delay has
been compounded due to the exceptionally heavy
workload caused by his involvement in organising the
annual IAT Congress. The identification of the Website
Coordinator as a change agent has proven to be
risk which has been
added to the risk
Draw up a It was suggested
list of all by the Chair of the
institutions IAT Council to look
signed at the institutions
up to the signed up to the
Concordat of concordat
using the Council
and develop contacts obtain
a contact list some email
addresses and
develop a standard
email ready to send
out details of the
programme when
finalised and ask
them to sign up to
the programme.
Update: This list
was drawn up using
various contacts
across Council and
members of the
Animal Welfare
Group. However, not
all institutes had a
contact that anyone
knew. The plan is
also to advertise
the programme on
the animal
management and
welfare discussion
group and in the IAT
Send out a To be completed
standard email once programme is
to all contacts live.
asking initiations
to sign up to the
Table 6. Project implementation document.
Table 7.
Stakeholder Influence Method of Frequency
IAT Council Key players Face-to-face At Council
meetings every
two months
IAT Website Potential Face-to-face, At least
Coordinator change agent email monthly
Career Animal Key player email, When Animal
Technologists advertisements Technologist
in IAT Bulletin programme is
Home Office Indifferent email As and when
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 26
Animal Technologist Exchange Programme: A Level 6 Higher Education project
On the whole communication regarding the project has
been planned and managed well as described in the
project planning document.
G Project results:
As this is an organisational project the results are in
organisational change rather than to present raw data.
However, it is worth noting that as part of the reporting
process to the IAT Council, the amount of people
involved in the exchange will be reported on an annual
The project has brought together stakeholders from
different backgrounds in the aim of setting the
exchange programme up. For example the IAT Website
Coordinator’s day to day job is head of Biological
Services at a large research establishment. While I, as
project lead, am an advanced Animal Technologist and
Named Animal Care and Welfare Officer (NACWO) at a
London based University. In addition to this the Chair
of the IAT who also had various suggestions and
questions is the director of of another major University.
With this background of people working closely
together, this demonstrates the essence of what the
ATEP is all about. The exchange programme is a forum
for an exchange of ideas for the benefit of staff
development and animal welfare. Which is exactly
what the originators of the programme have
Personally, the benefits to my organisation in myself
working on a project on the IAT Council has increased
my own skillset in terms of developing my
communication, time management and organising
skills. As this project is different to my workplace job,
an opportunity to work on a project such as the ATEP
has allowed the development of a more confident and
skilled person and who, as a result, built a network of
people that did not exist before the project started.
G Budget management:
This project has been very difficult to report in a budget
sense as most of the budget planned has not had a
monetary value but has been an outlay in time. The
estimate for input time was 40%. This proved an under
estimation. A large percentage of personal time has
been speaking to people to get the project off the
ground and running. One issue with dealing with other
members of the Council is that they are all volunteers
with limited free time which means other priorities
such as the involvement with planning the annual IAT
Congress for example, reduces people’s availability to
work on new projects. This has been a frustration and
a delay in the project that was unforeseen. Due to this
delay it has been difficult to assess the transport
costs. However, there will be a yearly overview on all
aspects of the ATEP and a more detailed assessment
will be made then.
Project evaluation
Challenges and setbacks:
During the implementation process a few challenges
and setback occurred. One setback was the discussion
surrounding online forms. In the process of developing
the Technologist Exchange Programme webpage the
IAT Website Coordinator did email to say all online
forms were bring reviewed. In his opinion the forms
drawn up in the information document were not
suitable for being online use. This has led to several
emails between the various parties being sent back
and forth regarding the necessary action required on
to resolving this. A face-to-face meeting with the IAT
Website Coordinator and his deputy allowed us to
arrive at a date which suited all of us to discuss this
issue in full. This was an unforeseen risk delay and has
been added to the risk register with mitigating actions.
A further challenge was during consulting with the IAT
Council during the last stages of resolving the online
form issue there was a suggestion from the Chair to
not only open up the programme to all Animal
Technologists and NACWOs but also to include an
apprentice element to the ATEP exchange programme.
This would add to the programme greatly however, the
suggestion has meant the information has had to be
amended again this was not planned for in the original
project planning document.
Positive developments
One of the ideas that went well was the drawing up a
list of all the institutions that had signed up to the
Concordat of Openness
and identifying contacts. This
was done by a member of the Animal Welfare Group
who did a fantastic job in coming up compiling with a
contact list.
The communication plan set out has been adhered to
and frequency was good as well as identifying relevant
stakeholders. Throughout the process no new
stakeholder have emerged and their lack of influence
have been correctly identified.
Communication with all stakeholders have been
positive and the ambition and willingness on all parties
to have an Animal Technologist Exchange Programme
has made the project run smoother.
Overall it has been deemed that the Animal
Technologist Exchange Programme would benefit our
industry as a whole, improve staff training and
development, and improve animal welfare. These are
the key elements to the IT mission which is ‘to
advance knowledge and promote excellence in the
care and welfare of animals in science and to enhance
the standards and status of those professionally
engaged in the care, welfare and use of animals in
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 27
project. This has not been without it faults and
frustrations. The members on IAT Council use a lot of
their free time on Council business. Due to this, there
has been a delay due to other priorities for Council
members. This has meant making decisions on my own
initative to get this project off the ground which has
increased my confidence in making decisions and
standing by them and then communicating those
decisions to Council. From a personal view having
never really worked on a major project and being
unsure of the role I would play on Council, developing
this project that could help a number of technologists
develop their careers, has justified my decision in
joining Council. This has been useful in improving my
confidence in the workplace which now has someone
how can work and develop complex projects but also
someone who is establishing a network of people to
call on for advice.
On reflection, things that I would have done differently:
I think I should have consulted the IAT Website
Coordinator at an earlier stage in the design of the
Technologist Exchange Programme document. As a
stakeholder who had been identified as a change
agent, this was an important aspect of the project
and the lack of early consultation meant a
significant delay in the project as his available time
was committed to other projects.
One of the difficulties of this type of project is
developing a budget plan. In terms of money there
was none available. A lot of people have invested a
lot of time on this project. I suggested in the
planning budget that 40% of my time would be
involved on the project. This was in fact an
underestimation. A lot of my time has been spent on
this project however this is due to wanting to have
and develop the programme correctly and make it a
worthwhile project. It must be done in the right
manner to avoid embarrassment to the IAT and
myself as project manager.
The establishment of the Animal Technologist Exchange
Programme is something that will continue to develop
and provide oppor tunities for animal welfare
improvements in addition to providing staff
development opportunities which may change the
industry. I feel immensely proud to be giving something
back for the opportunities that I have been given in my
Chartered Management Institute (2013): the checklist
series: Managing others teams and individuals, London,
Institute of Animal Technology (IAT), Animal Technologist:
A caring career brochure. https://simplebooklet.com/
Animal Technologist Exchange Programme: A Level 6 Higher Education project
Stakeholder feedback
IAT Council
Figure 9. Feedback questionnaire IAT Website
Questions Comments/answers
How do you think the
Technologist programme
has changed Animal
What do you think are
the strengths/
weaknesses of the
Animal Technologist
Do you feel sufficient
information about the
project was provided
to you in a timely
Do you feel you were
sufficiently consulted
during the life of the
Figure 10. Website Coordinator questionnaire.
Questions Comments/answers
Was the timeframe
given to design the
webpage of the
Technologist programme
Do you feel sufficient
information about the
project was provided
to you in a timely
Do you feel your views
on the design and layout
of the webpage were
taken into account
and was the project
lead open to your
To what extent were
your needs or concerns
in relation to the project
Conclusions/lessons learned
Working on this project has been a challenge; It has
involved a closer working relationship with some
members of Council than before which has given me
confidence in my ability to work with people on a
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 28
Animal Technologist Exchange Programme: A Level 6 Higher Education project
Betts, P.W. (1999). Supervisory Management. 7th
edition, pp 285-347 Pub. Longman ISBN-10:
0582418771, ISBN-13: 978-0582418776
of-decision-making Last accessed: 24/01/2018
www.brighthubpm.com last accessed 20/01/2018
Chartered Management Institute (2015). Managing
business communication, Profile Books, London
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 29
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 30
Trainingsprojekt: Intravenöse Injektion, Teil 1
Planung und Umfang. Ein Hochschulprojekt der
Stufe 6 [Abschlussjahr]
Biological Services Facility, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of
Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, Großbritannien
Korrespondenz: carmen.abela@lshtm.ac.uk
Die intravenöse (i.v.) Injektion über die laterale Schwanzvene ist ein Verabreichungsweg beim Einsatz von Tieren in
der medizinischen Forschung. Es ist die bevorzugte Art zur Abgabe von Substanzen, insbesondere wenn eine
Vermeidung des First-Pass-Effekts durch den Leberstoffwechsel erwünscht ist. Sie wird auch verwendet, um den
vorgeschlagenen Weg der endgültigen Verabreichung zu simulieren. Sie ist jedoch technisch schwierig und erfordert
eine spezielle Ausbildung. Ungenauigkeiten während der Injektion sind häufig, weshalb Forscher davon absehen,
diese Art zu nutzen, und stattdessen lieber auf üblichere Verabreichungswege wie die intraperitoneale Injektion oder
die Schlundsonde zurückgreifen.
Die Verwendung von lebenden Tieren zum Erwerb technischer Fähigkeiten verbietet sich ethisch und gesetzlich, und
in der Regel wird technische Kompetenz durch die Praxis mit Kadavern erworben. Ziel dieses Projekts ist es,
festzustellen, ob es notwendig ist, Tierkadaver tote Mäuse für das Training zu verwenden oder ob ein alternatives
Trainingsinstrument ebenso effektiv ist. Das Konzept eines Trainingsprojektes ist integraler Bestandteil des
Ergebnisses und muss, damit es erfolgreich sein kann, fristgerecht, innerhalb des Budgets und nach Spezifikation
Schlagwörter: Training, intravenöse Injektionen, Maus, Kadaver, technische Fähigkeiten
April 2019 Animal Technology and Welfare
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 31
Paper Summary Translations
CBS Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN,
Korrespondenz: m.bilton@imperial.ac.uk
Basierend auf einem Hochschul-Projektmanagementauftrag der Stufe 6 [Abschlussjahr]
Dem Institute of Animal Technology wurde zur Kenntnis gebracht, dass es der biomedizinischen Industrie an einer
formalen Möglichkeit zum Austausch zwischen Tiertechnologen verschiedener wissenschaftlicher Einrichtungen
mangelt, um weitere Kenntnisse und Fähigkeiten erwerben zu können. Das Animal Technologist Exchange Programme
(ATEP) wurde entwickelt, um Tiertechnologen eine strukturierte Möglichkeit zum Austausch zu bieten.
Das Programm steht allen Ebenen von Tiertechnologen offen, einschließlich Auszubildenden, und die Austausche
können von unterschiedlicher Dauer sein.
Schlagwörter: Tiertechnologen, Austauschprogramm, Fähigkeiten, fachliche Weiterbildung
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 32
April 2019 Animal Technology and Welfare
Projet de formation sur les injections
intraveineuses: Partie 1 Planification et portée du
projet. Un projet d’enseignement supérieur de
niveau 6
Biological Services Facility, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of
Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, Londres WC1E 7HT
Correspondance: carmen.abela@lshtm.ac.uk
Les injections intraveineuses (i.v.) effectuées via la veine caudale latérale représentent l’une des méthodes
d’administration sur les animaux utilisés dans la recherche médicale. Il s’agit de la technique privilégiée pour
l’administration de substances, en particulier lorsque l’on tente d’éviter un effet de premier passage par
métabolisme hépatique. Elles sont également utilisées pour reproduire la méthode d’administration finale proposée.
Elles sont néanmoins difficiles à réaliser sur le plan technique et nécessitent une formation spécialisée. Les erreurs
pendant les injections sont fréquentes, ce qui dissuade les chercheurs d’employer cette méthode et les encourage
à utiliser plutôt les techniques de dosage plus courantes telles que l’injection intrapéritonéale ou le gavage oral.
L’utilisation d’animaux vivants en vue d’acquérir des compétences techniques est interdite d’un point de vue éthique
et légal, et les compétences techniques sont habituellement obtenues en utilisant des cadavres d’animaux. Ce projet
a pour objectif de déterminer s’il est nécessaire d’utiliser des cadavres d’animaux (souris mortes) à des fins de
formation, ou bien si un outil de formation alternatif est aussi efficace. La conception d’un projet de formation
déterminera le succès de ce programme, et afin que ce dernier soit réussi, elle doit respecter des délais temporels,
des contraintes budgétaires et les spécifications requises.
Mots-clés: Formation, injections intraveineuses, souris, cadavres, compétences techniques
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 33
Paper Summary Translations
Programme d’échange des technologues animaliers:
Programme d’échange des technologues animaliers
CBS Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, Londres W12 ONN
Correspondance: m.bilton@imperial.ac.uk
Basé sur une mission de gestion de projet « HE de niveau 6 »
Il a été por à l’attention de l’Institut des technologies animales que le secteur biomédical ne possédait aucune
méthode formelle permettant aux technologues animaliers de communiquer avec leurs collègues basés au sein
d’autres établissements scientifiques afin d’acquérir des connaissances et des compétences supplémentaires. Le
programme d’échange des technologues animaliers (ATEP ou Animal Technologist Exchange Programme) a été conçu
dans le but de fournir un cadre structuré favorisant la communication entre les technologues animaliers.
Ce programme est offert aux technologues animaliers de tous niveaux (y compris les stagiaires), et les échanges
peuvent être d’une durée variable.
Mots-clés: Technologues animaliers, programme d’échange, compétences, formation professionnelle continue
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 34
April 2019 Animal Technology and Welfare
Proyecto de formación sobre inyecciones
intravenosas: Parte 1: Planificación y alcance.
Proyecto de Educación Superior de Nivel 6
Biological Services Facility, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of
Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, Londres WC1E 7HT
Correspondencia: carmen.abela@lshtm.ac.uk
La inyección intravenosa (i.v.) a través de la vena lateral de la cola es una vía de administración que se usa al utilizar
animales para la investigación médica. Es la vía preferente para el suministro de sustancias, especialmente cuando
se quiere evitar el efecto de primer paso a través del metabolismo hepático. También se utiliza para imitar la vía
propuesta de administración final. Sin embargo, resulta cnicamente complicada y requiere formación
especializada. Suelen darse imprecisiones durante la inyección, de forma que los investigadores prefieren evitar
utilizar esta vía en favor de vías de dosificación más comunes como la inyección intraperitoneal o la sonda gástrica.
El uso de animales vivos para obtener conocimientos técnicos está ética y legalmente prohibido, de modo que se
obtienen aptitudes técnicas utilizando cadáveres. Con este proyecto, se pretende aclarar si existe la necesidad de
utilizar cadáveres de animales para la formación, como ratones muertos, o si existen otras herramientas de
formación alternativas igual de eficaces. El diseño de un proyecto de formación es fundamental para los resultados
y para que tenga éxito este debe ser puntual, ajustarse al presupuesto y cumplir las especificaciones.
Palabras clave: formación, inyecciones intravenosas, ratón, cadáveres, aptitudes técnicas.
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 35
Paper Summary Translations
Programa de intercambio de tecnólogos de
Programa de intercambio de tecnólogos de
CBS Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, Londres W12 ONN
Correspondencia: m.bilton@imperial.ac.uk
Basado en una asignación de gestión de proyectos HE de nivel 6
Según se ha hecho saber al Institute of Animal Technology, el sector biomédico carece de un modo formal mediante
el cual se puedan producir intercambios entre tecnólogos de animales en otros establecimientos científicos a fin de
ampliar conocimientos y aptitudes. El Animal Technologist Exchange Programme (ATEP) se ha diseñado para ofrecer
una forma estructural de intercambio de tecnólogos.
El programa está abierto a tecnólogos de animales de todos los niveles, incluidos aprendices, y los intercambios
pueden tener varias duraciones.
Palabras clave: tecnólogos de animales, programa de intercambio, aptitud, formación, formación continua.
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 36
April 2019 Animal Technology and Welfare
Progetto di formazione sulle iniezioni intravenose:
parte 1 pianificazione e scoping. Progetto di
Livello 6 di formazione superiore
Biological Services Facility, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of
Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, Londra WC1E 7HT
Corrispondenza: carmen.abela@lshtm.ac.uk
L’iniezione intravenosa (i).v. tramite la vena caudale laterale è una modalità di somministrazione utilizzata in ricerche
mediche che fanno uso di animali. È il metodo preferito per la somministrazione di sostanze, soprattutto se si vuole
evitare l’effetto del primo passaggio attraverso il metabolismo epatico. Vi si fa ricorso anche per simulare la via di
somministrazione finale proposta. Tuttavia, risulta difficoltoso da un punto di vista tecnico e richiede una formazione
specialistica. Durante l’iniezione, si verificano comunemente errori vari che scoraggiano i ricercatori dall’usare tale
metodo a favore di forme di dosaggio più comuni, quali l’iniezione intraperitoneale o la sonda orogastrica.
Per motivi etici e legali, l’uso di animali vivi per l’acquisizione di competenze tecniche è severamente proibito e, di
solito, la competenza tecnica si sviluppa facendo pratica sui cadaveri. Questo progetto si prefigge di determinare
l’effettiva necessità di utilizzo di cadaveri di animali per la formazione (ovvero topi morti) o se uno strumento
formativo alternativo possa rivelarsi ugualmente efficace. L’ideazione di un progetto di formazione fa parte integrante
dell’esito e, per favorirne la riuscita, deve avvenire entro i limiti temporali stabiliti, rientrare nel budget e rispettare
le specifiche impostate.
Parole chiave: Formazione, iniezioni intravenose, topo, cadaveri, competenze tecniche
Apr LATEST:Animal Technology and Welfare 22/3/19 12:28 Page 37
Paper Summary Translations
Animal Technologist Exchange Programme:
programma di scambio per stabularisti
CBS Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, Londra W12 ONN
Corrispondenza: m.bilton@imperial.ac.uk
Basato su una ricerca di project management del Livello 6 di formazione superiore
All’Institute of Animal Technology è stato segnalato che il settore biomedicale non disponeva di un canale di scambio